What is deep delving and how is it done?

Deep delving method is a particular local placement of organic and chemical fertilizers in soils. Winter deep delving prepares fertilizers to be consumed by trees at the beginning of the growing season. Fruit trees mainly suffer from different types of deficiencies due to the presence of active lime in lime soils, excessive bicarbonate in irrigating water, organic materials shortage, incorrect fertilizers application (top-dressing method), slight mobility of most of the fertilizers (particularly phosphate and micronutrient ones), and insufficient fertilizer and water absorption. Applying fertilizers via this method is far more efficient than top-dressing method. Other advantages of this method are better absorption by roots, respiration, and water permeability through the pit around the root.


The advantages of deep delving

  1.       Preventing the shoot tip of fruit trees from dieback
  2.       Growth of fruit trees roots in lime soils
  3.       Increasing the leaf area in fruit trees
  4.       Improving the quantity and quality of fruits
  5.       Increasing water infiltration through the pores filled with organic materials


Where to dig a hole in deep delving method

The best place to dig a hole is the last one third of the shadow of the tree.  Young and active roots are mostly concentrated in this area. Delving in this area causes the least damage to main and thick roots. The roots are able to directly absorb their favorite nutrients leading to a decrease in weed growth.

The holes should preferably be along the water flow. The number of the holes differ depending on the type of the tree, soil condition, age of the tree, etc., but generally 2-4 holes would be appropriate for trees of 10 years old or above. The depth of the holes also varies based on the type of the tree; they are usually 30-50 cm deep. It must be noticed that the holes shouldn’t be filled up with the same old soil, yet they should be refilled with a mixture of a fertilizer and an organic material such as rotted manure or peat.

This method is particularly adequate for arid regions. If the holes are kept in a proper condition, digging once would be enough for several years.

Since Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers enjoy a special and unique structure, they cause less leaching and higher availability percentage to the roots in deep delving.


What is foliar spraying and how is it done?

Foliar spraying is a supplementary way to decrease fertilizer application amount. It is a rather easy, fast and efficient method, mainly used in the following cases:

  • plant immediate need to a special element
  • low absorption of the soil elements in early spring due to low roots activity
  • in conditions when the soil is not suitable for elements absorption (too high or low pH level, too high or low moisture, deficient ventilation, etc.)
  • in lime soils with high pH where there is a high probability of some elements deficiency such as iron, zinc, manganese, and copper

The competition rises among fruits and roots on nutrient absorption during trees reproductive stage. Therefore, it is very likely to observe roots suffering nutrients deficiency and slow growth. This competition can be reduced by foliar spraying to prevent those deficiencies.

Different terms influence absorbing rate of applied solution:

  • light
  • temperature
  • relative moisture
  • leaf age
  • leaf area
  • plant nutrition condition
  • pH of the applied solution
  • surfactants

Low light intensity, low temperature, and relative moisture increase the absorption of applied solution; moreover, absorption rate enhances if the leaf is younger and its surface is larger.

It must be noted that the weaker the plant is in nutrition, the more and the faster elements absorption is. Various elements would reach the maximum absorption at different pH levels. For instance, phosphorus is absorbed best at pH 5-6 and calcium at pH 7. Applying surfactants leads to a reduction in surface tension of water and an increase in the contact surface of the solution and the leaf, resulting in more solution absorption. However, Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers do not need surfactants to get absorbed through foliar spraying.  

Considering the importance and necessity of proper application time and method of Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers to achieve the highest function, the followings are required during foliar spraying:

  • Owing to Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers capacity to be used both through soil application and foliar spraying, there is no limitation on applying either method, although using each method at least once during the growth period would have better effects.
  • Mixing calcium fertilizers with other fertilizers is not recommended. It will be better if they are applied individually.
  • Do not apply any fertilizers on plants in flowering stage through foliar spraying; applying fertilizers at this stage causes flower drop.
  • The best time to apply foliar spraying is early in the morning before the sunrise because of open stomata and high elements absorption rate at this time. If foliar spraying is not possible at this time, late hours of the day (before it gets dark) will be appropriate as well.
  • Avoid mixing Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers with pesticides containing copper and sulfur.
  • Foliar spraying ratio for young trees is the same, but in deep delving or fertigation the application amount is less.
  • The ratio of “1 g/L” is the same as 1 gram in 1000 liters of water.


What is seed priming?

Seed priming is a process in which seeds are soaked in a solution(s) before cultivation to foster seed germination, increase the size of the root, and establish seedlings.

Different kinds of seed priming

  1.       Simultaneous with winnowing in case they are mixed with pesticides.
  2.      Mixing seeds and priming solution in one mixer: depending on the size of the mixer, seeds are put in it and priming solution is added and mixed with diluted water while the mixer is on, finally the mixture is left until it is beaten completely.
  3.    Some specific amount of seed is put on the ground and the needed amount of priming solution is sprayed on the seeds while they are simultaneously being mixed with a shovel.   

Seed priming with Khazra Nano Chelated Complete Micro and Zinc fertilizers:

Seed priming with Khazra Nano Chelated Complete Micro and Zinc fertilizers fosters seeds germination, accelerates protein synthesis, increases root volume and tillering in cereals, boosts seed phototropism strength, establishes seedlings more adequately, and increases resistance to drought, pests and diseases. It should be noted that Khazra Nano Chelated Complete Micro fertilizer is more effective than Khazra Nano Chelated Zinc fertilizer in terms of improving germination indexes.


How can I take samples from the farm soil to do analysis?




  1. Divide the field into different homogenous units based on the visual observation and farmer’s experience.
  2. Remove the surface litter at the sampling spot.
  3. Drive the auger to a plough depth of 15 cm and draw the soil sample.
  4. Collect at least 10 to 15 samples from each sampling unit and place in a bucket or tray.
  5. If auger is not available, make a ‘V’ shaped cut to a depth of 15 cm in the sampling spot using spade.
  6. Remove thick slices of soil from top to bottom of exposed face of the ‘V’ shaped cut and place in a clean container.
  7. Mix the samples thoroughly and remove foreign materials like roots, stones, pebbles and gravels.
  8. Reduce the bulk to about half to one kilogram by quartering or compartmentalization.
  9. Quartering is done by dividing the thoroughly mixed sample into four equal parts. The two opposite quarters are discarded and the remaining two quarters are remixed and the process repeated until the desired sample size is obtained.
  10. Compartmentalization is done by uniformly spreading the soil over a clean hard surface and dividing into smaller compartments by drawing lines along and across the length and breadth. From each compartment a pinch of soil is collected. This process is repeated till the desired quantity of sample is obtained.
  11. Collect the sample in a clean cloth or polythene bag.
  12. Label the bag with information like name of the farmer, location of the farm, survey number, previous crop grown, present crop, crop to be grown in the next season, date of collection, name of the sampler etc.


Guidelines for sampling depth




Soil Sampling Depth




Grasses and grasslands




Rice, finger millet, groundnut, pearl millet, small millets etc.(shallow rooted crops)




Cotton, sugarcane, banana, tapioca, vegetables etc. (deep rooted crops)




Perennial crops, plantations and orchard crops

Three soil samples at 12, 24 and  36 inches

Three soil samples at 30, 60 and 90 cm



Is it needed to use other products in case Khazra fertilizers are applied?

All commonly used fertilizers can be replaced by Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers. Replacing all fertilizers with Khazra fertilizers in greenhouses is completely cost-effective and profitable. However, replacing all base fertilizers (such as N+P2O5+K2O) in farms and gardens is not cost-effective in most cases, so it is preferable to apply Khazra fertilizers as additional/supplementary fertilizers according to instructions. 


Does Khazra application affect irrigation frequency?

Yes, it dose. Irrigation can be decreased due to increased water efficiency and ripening rate of agricultural products.


I export agricultural products to Europe; considering various analyses conducted on the products, does Khazra application affect the analyses negatively?

Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers are synthetic organic compounds that are free of any kinds of hormones, toxins, and radioactivity.


Does Khazra change soil texture?

Carbohydrate compounds in Khazra fertilizers positively affect soil physical structure, so not only do they not harm soil texture, but their application in consecutive growing seasons improves it. 


Does Khazra affect soil analysis?

It surly affects soil bio-fortification/enrichment. In addition, with an increase in macroelements absorption rate from soli, it restores balance in soil in terms of macroelements.


How should Khazra be applied for rain-fed crops?

First method: it can be mixed with other solid and granular fertilizers on the farm and dispersed on the surface.

Second method: foliar spraying on leaves (recommended).


Is it possible to mix Khazra with pesticides?

It is possible; however, they must not be used along with pesticides containing copper. Technically, it is not safe to apply fertilizers and pesticides together.


What is the best time for foliar spraying?

Early morning or before the sunset.


Can Khazra be applied to trees by flood irrigation?

Yes, it can, but to optimize fertilizer consumption, it is recommended to follow the Instructions.


Can Khazra be applied in combination with other fertilizers in fertilizer spreader machines?

Yes, it can. The exact amount of fertilizer must be specified.


What is the application instruction for tall trees as there is no possibility of foliar spraying?  

They can be applied through deep delving or simultaneous with irrigation.

What is the difference between nano and common fertilizers?

Absorption rate and positive effects of nano fertilizers is far more than common fertilizers. The structure of chelates in chelated nano fertilizers is more stable than common chelates which leads to a great number of positive effects. Also, chelated nano fertilizers are applicable through both foliar spraying and soil application.


What does chelate mean?

It is a carrier which holds elements and increases their absorption.


Is Khazra absorbable in calcareous soils?

Salinity is prevalent in areas with coarse texture and low annual rate of precipitation. Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers are completely absorbable in all kinds of soil (pH=3-11). Khazra fertilizers can overcome chlorosis and various types of deficiencies by releasing elements in such conditions and besides increase the plant resistance to water stress.


Are Khazra fertilizers chemical?

Yes, but they are not the same as common chemical fertilizers known worldwide; i.e., they are not like urea and potassium sulfate that are commonly known nowadays. 


What should be done if Khazra solution is accidentally consumed by livestock?

It does not cause any problems and the minerals in the fertilizer can be excreted by consuming a large amount of water.


The fruit is ripening. Can I still apply Khazra?

If the fruit ripening stage is not complete yet and you have at least 1 month left before picking, you can apply Khazra Nano Chelated Super fertilizer through foliar spraying with the concentration of 2.5 g/L. Yet, the best result will be achieved when you use it in a proper deep delving season and then apply it through foliar spraying at the right time.


Our agricultural product is infected by a fungus. Experts have recommended reinforcing the plant and have not prescribed any pesticides.

Does Khazra help reinforce the plant to treat fungus?

As regardsfungal diseases, if they are from downy mildew or rust family, foliar spraying may generally aggravate the problem. However, using elements such as iron, zinc, and manganese normally increases phenolic compounds in plant which subsequently leads to treatment and prevention of diseases in farm or garden crops. In such a condition, foliar spraying of Khazra Nano Chelated Copper fertilizer (1 g/L) is recommended once.


Does applying Khazra Chelated Nano fertilizers affect plant resistance to parasites?

Yes, Khazra Nano Chelated Silicon fertilizer increases plant resistance to parasites such as nematode and psylla.


2013 (c) Copyright khazra.ir.
All rights reserved. Sodour Ahrar Shargh co.
Sales[at]khazra.ir :Email
+98 21 88992123



Save +989105368979 ­on Your Mobile Phone Save +989105368979 ­on Your Mobile Phone